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Purpose of this post

This post is directed towards community members who wish to rapidly access information on current developments surrounding the Dash cryptocurrency.
Lately we've noticed how the pace of events picked up significantly within the Dash project due to many years of hard work coming together and pieces falling into place ("Evolution" is finally here. It's called Dash Platform). For the purpose of keeping these many pieces of information together, however, singular Reddit submissions are insufficient. Thus we decided to maintain a pinned thread collecting blog posts, interviews, articles, podcasts, videos & announcements. Check back regularly, as this thread will always feature the latest news around Dash, while also serving as a mid-term archive for important announcements and developments.
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Dash Platform Video Series (formerly known as "Evolution") with Amanda B. Johnson

  1. Dash is Becoming a Cloud | Dash Platform #1
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  4. Usernames & Dash Platform Name Service (DPNS) | Dash Platform #4
  5. What is Dash Platform Protocol? (DPP) | Dash Platform #5

Dash Core Group News

(last updated: Oct 30th, 2020)

Dash Newsroom with Mark Mason & Dash Talk with Amanda B. Johnson

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Development news

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submitted by Basilpop to dashpay [link] [comments]

Technical: A Brief History of Payment Channels: from Satoshi to Lightning Network

Who cares about political tweets from some random country's president when payment channels are a much more interesting and are actually capable of carrying value?
So let's have a short history of various payment channel techs!

Generation 0: Satoshi's Broken nSequence Channels

Because Satoshi's Vision included payment channels, except his implementation sucked so hard we had to go fix it and added RBF as a by-product.
Originally, the plan for nSequence was that mempools would replace any transaction spending certain inputs with another transaction spending the same inputs, but only if the nSequence field of the replacement was larger.
Since 0xFFFFFFFF was the highest value that nSequence could get, this would mark a transaction as "final" and not replaceable on the mempool anymore.
In fact, this "nSequence channel" I will describe is the reason why we have this weird rule about nLockTime and nSequence. nLockTime actually only works if nSequence is not 0xFFFFFFFF i.e. final. If nSequence is 0xFFFFFFFF then nLockTime is ignored, because this if the "final" version of the transaction.
So what you'd do would be something like this:
  1. You go to a bar and promise the bartender to pay by the time the bar closes. Because this is the Bitcoin universe, time is measured in blockheight, so the closing time of the bar is indicated as some future blockheight.
  2. For your first drink, you'd make a transaction paying to the bartender for that drink, paying from some coins you have. The transaction has an nLockTime equal to the closing time of the bar, and a starting nSequence of 0. You hand over the transaction and the bartender hands you your drink.
  3. For your succeeding drink, you'd remake the same transaction, adding the payment for that drink to the transaction output that goes to the bartender (so that output keeps getting larger, by the amount of payment), and having an nSequence that is one higher than the previous one.
  4. Eventually you have to stop drinking. It comes down to one of two possibilities:
    • You drink until the bar closes. Since it is now the nLockTime indicated in the transaction, the bartender is able to broadcast the latest transaction and tells the bouncers to kick you out of the bar.
    • You wisely consider the state of your liver. So you re-sign the last transaction with a "final" nSequence of 0xFFFFFFFF i.e. the maximum possible value it can have. This allows the bartender to get his or her funds immediately (nLockTime is ignored if nSequence is 0xFFFFFFFF), so he or she tells the bouncers to let you out of the bar.
Now that of course is a payment channel. Individual payments (purchases of alcohol, so I guess buying coffee is not in scope for payment channels). Closing is done by creating a "final" transaction that is the sum of the individual payments. Sure there's no routing and channels are unidirectional and channels have a maximum lifetime but give Satoshi a break, he was also busy inventing Bitcoin at the time.
Now if you noticed I called this kind of payment channel "broken". This is because the mempool rules are not consensus rules, and cannot be validated (nothing about the mempool can be validated onchain: I sigh every time somebody proposes "let's make block size dependent on mempool size", mempool state cannot be validated by onchain data). Fullnodes can't see all of the transactions you signed, and then validate that the final one with the maximum nSequence is the one that actually is used onchain. So you can do the below:
  1. Become friends with Jihan Wu, because he owns >51% of the mining hashrate (he totally reorged Bitcoin to reverse the Binance hack right?).
  2. Slip Jihan Wu some of the more interesting drinks you're ordering as an incentive to cooperate with you. So say you end up ordering 100 drinks, you split it with Jihan Wu and give him 50 of the drinks.
  3. When the bar closes, Jihan Wu quickly calls his mining rig and tells them to mine the version of your transaction with nSequence 0. You know, that first one where you pay for only one drink.
  4. Because fullnodes cannot validate nSequence, they'll accept even the nSequence=0 version and confirm it, immutably adding you paying for a single alcoholic drink to the blockchain.
  5. The bartender, pissed at being cheated, takes out a shotgun from under the bar and shoots at you and Jihan Wu.
  6. Jihan Wu uses his mystical chi powers (actually the combined exhaust from all of his mining rigs) to slow down the shotgun pellets, making them hit you as softly as petals drifting in the wind.
  7. The bartender mutters some words, clothes ripping apart as he or she (hard to believe it could be a she but hey) turns into a bear, ready to maul you for cheating him or her of the payment for all the 100 drinks you ordered from him or her.
  8. Steely-eyed, you stand in front of the bartender-turned-bear, daring him to touch you. You've watched Revenant, you know Leonardo di Caprio could survive a bear mauling, and if some posh actor can survive that, you know you can too. You make a pose. "Drunken troll logic attack!"
  9. I think I got sidetracked here.
Lessons learned?

Spilman Channels

Incentive-compatible time-limited unidirectional channel; or, Satoshi's Vision, Fixed (if transaction malleability hadn't been a problem, that is).
Now, we know the bartender will turn into a bear and maul you if you try to cheat the payment channel, and now that we've revealed you're good friends with Jihan Wu, the bartender will no longer accept a payment channel scheme that lets one you cooperate with a miner to cheat the bartender.
Fortunately, Jeremy Spilman proposed a better way that would not let you cheat the bartender.
First, you and the bartender perform this ritual:
  1. You get some funds and create a transaction that pays to a 2-of-2 multisig between you and the bartender. You don't broadcast this yet: you just sign it and get its txid.
  2. You create another transaction that spends the above transaction. This transaction (the "backoff") has an nLockTime equal to the closing time of the bar, plus one block. You sign it and give this backoff transaction (but not the above transaction) to the bartender.
  3. The bartender signs the backoff and gives it back to you. It is now valid since it's spending a 2-of-2 of you and the bartender, and both of you have signed the backoff transaction.
  4. Now you broadcast the first transaction onchain. You and the bartender wait for it to be deeply confirmed, then you can start ordering.
The above is probably vaguely familiar to LN users. It's the funding process of payment channels! The first transaction, the one that pays to a 2-of-2 multisig, is the funding transaction that backs the payment channel funds.
So now you start ordering in this way:
  1. For your first drink, you create a transaction spending the funding transaction output and sending the price of the drink to the bartender, with the rest returning to you.
  2. You sign the transaction and pass it to the bartender, who serves your first drink.
  3. For your succeeding drinks, you recreate the same transaction, adding the price of the new drink to the sum that goes to the bartender and reducing the money returned to you. You sign the transaction and give it to the bartender, who serves you your next drink.
  4. At the end:
    • If the bar closing time is reached, the bartender signs the latest transaction, completing the needed 2-of-2 signatures and broadcasting this to the Bitcoin network. Since the backoff transaction is the closing time + 1, it can't get used at closing time.
    • If you decide you want to leave early because your liver is crying, you just tell the bartender to go ahead and close the channel (which the bartender can do at any time by just signing and broadcasting the latest transaction: the bartender won't do that because he or she is hoping you'll stay and drink more).
    • If you ended up just hanging around the bar and never ordering, then at closing time + 1 you broadcast the backoff transaction and get your funds back in full.
Now, even if you pass 50 drinks to Jihan Wu, you can't give him the first transaction (the one which pays for only one drink) and ask him to mine it: it's spending a 2-of-2 and the copy you have only contains your own signature. You need the bartender's signature to make it valid, but he or she sure as hell isn't going to cooperate in something that would lose him or her money, so a signature from the bartender validating old state where he or she gets paid less isn't going to happen.
So, problem solved, right? Right? Okay, let's try it. So you get your funds, put them in a funding tx, get the backoff tx, confirm the funding tx...
Once the funding transaction confirms deeply, the bartender laughs uproariously. He or she summons the bouncers, who surround you menacingly.
"I'm refusing service to you," the bartender says.
"Fine," you say. "I was leaving anyway;" You smirk. "I'll get back my money with the backoff transaction, and posting about your poor service on reddit so you get negative karma, so there!"
"Not so fast," the bartender says. His or her voice chills your bones. It looks like your exploitation of the Satoshi nSequence payment channel is still fresh in his or her mind. "Look at the txid of the funding transaction that got confirmed."
"What about it?" you ask nonchalantly, as you flip open your desktop computer and open a reputable blockchain explorer.
What you see shocks you.
"What the --- the txid is different! You--- you changed my signature?? But how? I put the only copy of my private key in a sealed envelope in a cast-iron box inside a safe buried in the Gobi desert protected by a clan of nomads who have dedicated their lives and their childrens' lives to keeping my private key safe in perpetuity!"
"Didn't you know?" the bartender asks. "The components of the signature are just very large numbers. The sign of one of the signature components can be changed, from positive to negative, or negative to positive, and the signature will remain valid. Anyone can do that, even if they don't know the private key. But because Bitcoin includes the signatures in the transaction when it's generating the txid, this little change also changes the txid." He or she chuckles. "They say they'll fix it by separating the signatures from the transaction body. They're saying that these kinds of signature malleability won't affect transaction ids anymore after they do this, but I bet I can get my good friend Jihan Wu to delay this 'SepSig' plan for a good while yet. Friendly guy, this Jihan Wu, it turns out all I had to do was slip him 51 drinks and he was willing to mine a tx with the signature signs flipped." His or her grin widens. "I'm afraid your backoff transaction won't work anymore, since it spends a txid that is not existent and will never be confirmed. So here's the deal. You pay me 99% of the funds in the funding transaction, in exchange for me signing the transaction that spends with the txid that you see onchain. Refuse, and you lose 100% of the funds and every other HODLer, including me, benefits from the reduction in coin supply. Accept, and you get to keep 1%. I lose nothing if you refuse, so I won't care if you do, but consider the difference of getting zilch vs. getting 1% of your funds." His or her eyes glow. "GENUFLECT RIGHT NOW."
Lesson learned?

CLTV-protected Spilman Channels

Using CLTV for the backoff branch.
This variation is simply Spilman channels, but with the backoff transaction replaced with a backoff branch in the SCRIPT you pay to. It only became possible after OP_CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY (CLTV) was enabled in 2015.
Now as we saw in the Spilman Channels discussion, transaction malleability means that any pre-signed offchain transaction can easily be invalidated by flipping the sign of the signature of the funding transaction while the funding transaction is not yet confirmed.
This can be avoided by simply putting any special requirements into an explicit branch of the Bitcoin SCRIPT. Now, the backoff branch is supposed to create a maximum lifetime for the payment channel, and prior to the introduction of OP_CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY this could only be done by having a pre-signed nLockTime transaction.
With CLTV, however, we can now make the branches explicit in the SCRIPT that the funding transaction pays to.
Instead of paying to a 2-of-2 in order to set up the funding transaction, you pay to a SCRIPT which is basically "2-of-2, OR this singlesig after a specified lock time".
With this, there is no backoff transaction that is pre-signed and which refers to a specific txid. Instead, you can create the backoff transaction later, using whatever txid the funding transaction ends up being confirmed under. Since the funding transaction is immutable once confirmed, it is no longer possible to change the txid afterwards.

Todd Micropayment Networks

The old hub-spoke model (that isn't how LN today actually works).
One of the more direct predecessors of the Lightning Network was the hub-spoke model discussed by Peter Todd. In this model, instead of payers directly having channels to payees, payers and payees connect to a central hub server. This allows any payer to pay any payee, using the same channel for every payee on the hub. Similarly, this allows any payee to receive from any payer, using the same channel.
Remember from the above Spilman example? When you open a channel to the bartender, you have to wait around for the funding tx to confirm. This will take an hour at best. Now consider that you have to make channels for everyone you want to pay to. That's not very scalable.
So the Todd hub-spoke model has a central "clearing house" that transport money from payers to payees. The "Moonbeam" project takes this model. Of course, this reveals to the hub who the payer and payee are, and thus the hub can potentially censor transactions. Generally, though, it was considered that a hub would more efficiently censor by just not maintaining a channel with the payer or payee that it wants to censor (since the money it owned in the channel would just be locked uselessly if the hub won't process payments to/from the censored user).
In any case, the ability of the central hub to monitor payments means that it can surveill the payer and payee, and then sell this private transactional data to third parties. This loss of privacy would be intolerable today.
Peter Todd also proposed that there might be multiple hubs that could transport funds to each other on behalf of their users, providing somewhat better privacy.
Another point of note is that at the time such networks were proposed, only unidirectional (Spilman) channels were available. Thus, while one could be a payer, or payee, you would have to use separate channels for your income versus for your spending. Worse, if you wanted to transfer money from your income channel to your spending channel, you had to close both and reshuffle the money between them, both onchain activities.

Poon-Dryja Lightning Network

Bidirectional two-participant channels.
The Poon-Dryja channel mechanism has two important properties:
Both the original Satoshi and the two Spilman variants are unidirectional: there is a payer and a payee, and if the payee wants to do a refund, or wants to pay for a different service or product the payer is providing, then they can't use the same unidirectional channel.
The Poon-Dryjam mechanism allows channels, however, to be bidirectional instead: you are not a payer or a payee on the channel, you can receive or send at any time as long as both you and the channel counterparty are online.
Further, unlike either of the Spilman variants, there is no time limit for the lifetime of a channel. Instead, you can keep the channel open for as long as you want.
Both properties, together, form a very powerful scaling property that I believe most people have not appreciated. With unidirectional channels, as mentioned before, if you both earn and spend over the same network of payment channels, you would have separate channels for earning and spending. You would then need to perform onchain operations to "reverse" the directions of your channels periodically. Secondly, since Spilman channels have a fixed lifetime, even if you never used either channel, you would have to periodically "refresh" it by closing it and reopening.
With bidirectional, indefinite-lifetime channels, you may instead open some channels when you first begin managing your own money, then close them only after your lawyers have executed your last will and testament on how the money in your channels get divided up to your heirs: that's just two onchain transactions in your entire lifetime. That is the potentially very powerful scaling property that bidirectional, indefinite-lifetime channels allow.
I won't discuss the transaction structure needed for Poon-Dryja bidirectional channels --- it's complicated and you can easily get explanations with cute graphics elsewhere.
There is a weakness of Poon-Dryja that people tend to gloss over (because it was fixed very well by RustyReddit):
Another thing I want to emphasize is that while the Lightning Network paper and many of the earlier presentations developed from the old Peter Todd hub-and-spoke model, the modern Lightning Network takes the logical conclusion of removing a strict separation between "hubs" and "spokes". Any node on the Lightning Network can very well work as a hub for any other node. Thus, while you might operate as "mostly a payer", "mostly a forwarding node", "mostly a payee", you still end up being at least partially a forwarding node ("hub") on the network, at least part of the time. This greatly reduces the problems of privacy inherent in having only a few hub nodes: forwarding nodes cannot get significantly useful data from the payments passing through them, because the distance between the payer and the payee can be so large that it would be likely that the ultimate payer and the ultimate payee could be anyone on the Lightning Network.
Lessons learned?

Future

After LN, there's also the Decker-Wattenhofer Duplex Micropayment Channels (DMC). This post is long enough as-is, LOL. But for now, it uses a novel "decrementing nSequence channel", using the new relative-timelock semantics of nSequence (not the broken one originally by Satoshi). It actually uses multiple such "decrementing nSequence" constructs, terminating in a pair of Spilman channels, one in both directions (thus "duplex"). Maybe I'll discuss it some other time.
The realization that channel constructions could actually hold more channel constructions inside them (the way the Decker-Wattenhofer puts a pair of Spilman channels inside a series of "decrementing nSequence channels") lead to the further thought behind Burchert-Decker-Wattenhofer channel factories. Basically, you could host multiple two-participant channel constructs inside a larger multiparticipant "channel" construct (i.e. host multiple channels inside a factory).
Further, we have the Decker-Russell-Osuntokun or "eltoo" construction. I'd argue that this is "nSequence done right". I'll write more about this later, because this post is long enough.
Lessons learned?
submitted by almkglor to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Bitcoin (BTC)A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System.

Bitcoin (BTC)A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System.
  • Bitcoin (BTC) is a peer-to-peer cryptocurrency that aims to function as a means of exchange that is independent of any central authority. BTC can be transferred electronically in a secure, verifiable, and immutable way.
  • Launched in 2009, BTC is the first virtual currency to solve the double-spending issue by timestamping transactions before broadcasting them to all of the nodes in the Bitcoin network. The Bitcoin Protocol offered a solution to the Byzantine Generals’ Problem with a blockchain network structure, a notion first created by Stuart Haber and W. Scott Stornetta in 1991.
  • Bitcoin’s whitepaper was published pseudonymously in 2008 by an individual, or a group, with the pseudonym “Satoshi Nakamoto”, whose underlying identity has still not been verified.
  • The Bitcoin protocol uses an SHA-256d-based Proof-of-Work (PoW) algorithm to reach network consensus. Its network has a target block time of 10 minutes and a maximum supply of 21 million tokens, with a decaying token emission rate. To prevent fluctuation of the block time, the network’s block difficulty is re-adjusted through an algorithm based on the past 2016 block times.
  • With a block size limit capped at 1 megabyte, the Bitcoin Protocol has supported both the Lightning Network, a second-layer infrastructure for payment channels, and Segregated Witness, a soft-fork to increase the number of transactions on a block, as solutions to network scalability.

https://preview.redd.it/s2gmpmeze3151.png?width=256&format=png&auto=webp&s=9759910dd3c4a15b83f55b827d1899fb2fdd3de1

1. What is Bitcoin (BTC)?

  • Bitcoin is a peer-to-peer cryptocurrency that aims to function as a means of exchange and is independent of any central authority. Bitcoins are transferred electronically in a secure, verifiable, and immutable way.
  • Network validators, whom are often referred to as miners, participate in the SHA-256d-based Proof-of-Work consensus mechanism to determine the next global state of the blockchain.
  • The Bitcoin protocol has a target block time of 10 minutes, and a maximum supply of 21 million tokens. The only way new bitcoins can be produced is when a block producer generates a new valid block.
  • The protocol has a token emission rate that halves every 210,000 blocks, or approximately every 4 years.
  • Unlike public blockchain infrastructures supporting the development of decentralized applications (Ethereum), the Bitcoin protocol is primarily used only for payments, and has only very limited support for smart contract-like functionalities (Bitcoin “Script” is mostly used to create certain conditions before bitcoins are used to be spent).

2. Bitcoin’s core features

For a more beginner’s introduction to Bitcoin, please visit Binance Academy’s guide to Bitcoin.

Unspent Transaction Output (UTXO) model

A UTXO transaction works like cash payment between two parties: Alice gives money to Bob and receives change (i.e., unspent amount). In comparison, blockchains like Ethereum rely on the account model.
https://preview.redd.it/t1j6anf8f3151.png?width=1601&format=png&auto=webp&s=33bd141d8f2136a6f32739c8cdc7aae2e04cbc47

Nakamoto consensus

In the Bitcoin network, anyone can join the network and become a bookkeeping service provider i.e., a validator. All validators are allowed in the race to become the block producer for the next block, yet only the first to complete a computationally heavy task will win. This feature is called Proof of Work (PoW).
The probability of any single validator to finish the task first is equal to the percentage of the total network computation power, or hash power, the validator has. For instance, a validator with 5% of the total network computation power will have a 5% chance of completing the task first, and therefore becoming the next block producer.
Since anyone can join the race, competition is prone to increase. In the early days, Bitcoin mining was mostly done by personal computer CPUs.
As of today, Bitcoin validators, or miners, have opted for dedicated and more powerful devices such as machines based on Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (“ASIC”).
Proof of Work secures the network as block producers must have spent resources external to the network (i.e., money to pay electricity), and can provide proof to other participants that they did so.
With various miners competing for block rewards, it becomes difficult for one single malicious party to gain network majority (defined as more than 51% of the network’s hash power in the Nakamoto consensus mechanism). The ability to rearrange transactions via 51% attacks indicates another feature of the Nakamoto consensus: the finality of transactions is only probabilistic.
Once a block is produced, it is then propagated by the block producer to all other validators to check on the validity of all transactions in that block. The block producer will receive rewards in the network’s native currency (i.e., bitcoin) as all validators approve the block and update their ledgers.

The blockchain

Block production

The Bitcoin protocol utilizes the Merkle tree data structure in order to organize hashes of numerous individual transactions into each block. This concept is named after Ralph Merkle, who patented it in 1979.
With the use of a Merkle tree, though each block might contain thousands of transactions, it will have the ability to combine all of their hashes and condense them into one, allowing efficient and secure verification of this group of transactions. This single hash called is a Merkle root, which is stored in the Block Header of a block. The Block Header also stores other meta information of a block, such as a hash of the previous Block Header, which enables blocks to be associated in a chain-like structure (hence the name “blockchain”).
An illustration of block production in the Bitcoin Protocol is demonstrated below.

https://preview.redd.it/m6texxicf3151.png?width=1591&format=png&auto=webp&s=f4253304912ed8370948b9c524e08fef28f1c78d

Block time and mining difficulty

Block time is the period required to create the next block in a network. As mentioned above, the node who solves the computationally intensive task will be allowed to produce the next block. Therefore, block time is directly correlated to the amount of time it takes for a node to find a solution to the task. The Bitcoin protocol sets a target block time of 10 minutes, and attempts to achieve this by introducing a variable named mining difficulty.
Mining difficulty refers to how difficult it is for the node to solve the computationally intensive task. If the network sets a high difficulty for the task, while miners have low computational power, which is often referred to as “hashrate”, it would statistically take longer for the nodes to get an answer for the task. If the difficulty is low, but miners have rather strong computational power, statistically, some nodes will be able to solve the task quickly.
Therefore, the 10 minute target block time is achieved by constantly and automatically adjusting the mining difficulty according to how much computational power there is amongst the nodes. The average block time of the network is evaluated after a certain number of blocks, and if it is greater than the expected block time, the difficulty level will decrease; if it is less than the expected block time, the difficulty level will increase.

What are orphan blocks?

In a PoW blockchain network, if the block time is too low, it would increase the likelihood of nodes producingorphan blocks, for which they would receive no reward. Orphan blocks are produced by nodes who solved the task but did not broadcast their results to the whole network the quickest due to network latency.
It takes time for a message to travel through a network, and it is entirely possible for 2 nodes to complete the task and start to broadcast their results to the network at roughly the same time, while one’s messages are received by all other nodes earlier as the node has low latency.
Imagine there is a network latency of 1 minute and a target block time of 2 minutes. A node could solve the task in around 1 minute but his message would take 1 minute to reach the rest of the nodes that are still working on the solution. While his message travels through the network, all the work done by all other nodes during that 1 minute, even if these nodes also complete the task, would go to waste. In this case, 50% of the computational power contributed to the network is wasted.
The percentage of wasted computational power would proportionally decrease if the mining difficulty were higher, as it would statistically take longer for miners to complete the task. In other words, if the mining difficulty, and therefore targeted block time is low, miners with powerful and often centralized mining facilities would get a higher chance of becoming the block producer, while the participation of weaker miners would become in vain. This introduces possible centralization and weakens the overall security of the network.
However, given a limited amount of transactions that can be stored in a block, making the block time too longwould decrease the number of transactions the network can process per second, negatively affecting network scalability.

3. Bitcoin’s additional features

Segregated Witness (SegWit)

Segregated Witness, often abbreviated as SegWit, is a protocol upgrade proposal that went live in August 2017.
SegWit separates witness signatures from transaction-related data. Witness signatures in legacy Bitcoin blocks often take more than 50% of the block size. By removing witness signatures from the transaction block, this protocol upgrade effectively increases the number of transactions that can be stored in a single block, enabling the network to handle more transactions per second. As a result, SegWit increases the scalability of Nakamoto consensus-based blockchain networks like Bitcoin and Litecoin.
SegWit also makes transactions cheaper. Since transaction fees are derived from how much data is being processed by the block producer, the more transactions that can be stored in a 1MB block, the cheaper individual transactions become.
https://preview.redd.it/depya70mf3151.png?width=1601&format=png&auto=webp&s=a6499aa2131fbf347f8ffd812930b2f7d66be48e
The legacy Bitcoin block has a block size limit of 1 megabyte, and any change on the block size would require a network hard-fork. On August 1st 2017, the first hard-fork occurred, leading to the creation of Bitcoin Cash (“BCH”), which introduced an 8 megabyte block size limit.
Conversely, Segregated Witness was a soft-fork: it never changed the transaction block size limit of the network. Instead, it added an extended block with an upper limit of 3 megabytes, which contains solely witness signatures, to the 1 megabyte block that contains only transaction data. This new block type can be processed even by nodes that have not completed the SegWit protocol upgrade.
Furthermore, the separation of witness signatures from transaction data solves the malleability issue with the original Bitcoin protocol. Without Segregated Witness, these signatures could be altered before the block is validated by miners. Indeed, alterations can be done in such a way that if the system does a mathematical check, the signature would still be valid. However, since the values in the signature are changed, the two signatures would create vastly different hash values.
For instance, if a witness signature states “6,” it has a mathematical value of 6, and would create a hash value of 12345. However, if the witness signature were changed to “06”, it would maintain a mathematical value of 6 while creating a (faulty) hash value of 67890.
Since the mathematical values are the same, the altered signature remains a valid signature. This would create a bookkeeping issue, as transactions in Nakamoto consensus-based blockchain networks are documented with these hash values, or transaction IDs. Effectively, one can alter a transaction ID to a new one, and the new ID can still be valid.
This can create many issues, as illustrated in the below example:
  1. Alice sends Bob 1 BTC, and Bob sends Merchant Carol this 1 BTC for some goods.
  2. Bob sends Carols this 1 BTC, while the transaction from Alice to Bob is not yet validated. Carol sees this incoming transaction of 1 BTC to him, and immediately ships goods to B.
  3. At the moment, the transaction from Alice to Bob is still not confirmed by the network, and Bob can change the witness signature, therefore changing this transaction ID from 12345 to 67890.
  4. Now Carol will not receive his 1 BTC, as the network looks for transaction 12345 to ensure that Bob’s wallet balance is valid.
  5. As this particular transaction ID changed from 12345 to 67890, the transaction from Bob to Carol will fail, and Bob will get his goods while still holding his BTC.
With the Segregated Witness upgrade, such instances can not happen again. This is because the witness signatures are moved outside of the transaction block into an extended block, and altering the witness signature won’t affect the transaction ID.
Since the transaction malleability issue is fixed, Segregated Witness also enables the proper functioning of second-layer scalability solutions on the Bitcoin protocol, such as the Lightning Network.

Lightning Network

Lightning Network is a second-layer micropayment solution for scalability.
Specifically, Lightning Network aims to enable near-instant and low-cost payments between merchants and customers that wish to use bitcoins.
Lightning Network was conceptualized in a whitepaper by Joseph Poon and Thaddeus Dryja in 2015. Since then, it has been implemented by multiple companies. The most prominent of them include Blockstream, Lightning Labs, and ACINQ.
A list of curated resources relevant to Lightning Network can be found here.
In the Lightning Network, if a customer wishes to transact with a merchant, both of them need to open a payment channel, which operates off the Bitcoin blockchain (i.e., off-chain vs. on-chain). None of the transaction details from this payment channel are recorded on the blockchain, and only when the channel is closed will the end result of both party’s wallet balances be updated to the blockchain. The blockchain only serves as a settlement layer for Lightning transactions.
Since all transactions done via the payment channel are conducted independently of the Nakamoto consensus, both parties involved in transactions do not need to wait for network confirmation on transactions. Instead, transacting parties would pay transaction fees to Bitcoin miners only when they decide to close the channel.
https://preview.redd.it/cy56icarf3151.png?width=1601&format=png&auto=webp&s=b239a63c6a87ec6cc1b18ce2cbd0355f8831c3a8
One limitation to the Lightning Network is that it requires a person to be online to receive transactions attributing towards him. Another limitation in user experience could be that one needs to lock up some funds every time he wishes to open a payment channel, and is only able to use that fund within the channel.
However, this does not mean he needs to create new channels every time he wishes to transact with a different person on the Lightning Network. If Alice wants to send money to Carol, but they do not have a payment channel open, they can ask Bob, who has payment channels open to both Alice and Carol, to help make that transaction. Alice will be able to send funds to Bob, and Bob to Carol. Hence, the number of “payment hubs” (i.e., Bob in the previous example) correlates with both the convenience and the usability of the Lightning Network for real-world applications.

Schnorr Signature upgrade proposal

Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (“ECDSA”) signatures are used to sign transactions on the Bitcoin blockchain.
https://preview.redd.it/hjeqe4l7g3151.png?width=1601&format=png&auto=webp&s=8014fb08fe62ac4d91645499bc0c7e1c04c5d7c4
However, many developers now advocate for replacing ECDSA with Schnorr Signature. Once Schnorr Signatures are implemented, multiple parties can collaborate in producing a signature that is valid for the sum of their public keys.
This would primarily be beneficial for network scalability. When multiple addresses were to conduct transactions to a single address, each transaction would require their own signature. With Schnorr Signature, all these signatures would be combined into one. As a result, the network would be able to store more transactions in a single block.
https://preview.redd.it/axg3wayag3151.png?width=1601&format=png&auto=webp&s=93d958fa6b0e623caa82ca71fe457b4daa88c71e
The reduced size in signatures implies a reduced cost on transaction fees. The group of senders can split the transaction fees for that one group signature, instead of paying for one personal signature individually.
Schnorr Signature also improves network privacy and token fungibility. A third-party observer will not be able to detect if a user is sending a multi-signature transaction, since the signature will be in the same format as a single-signature transaction.

4. Economics and supply distribution

The Bitcoin protocol utilizes the Nakamoto consensus, and nodes validate blocks via Proof-of-Work mining. The bitcoin token was not pre-mined, and has a maximum supply of 21 million. The initial reward for a block was 50 BTC per block. Block mining rewards halve every 210,000 blocks. Since the average time for block production on the blockchain is 10 minutes, it implies that the block reward halving events will approximately take place every 4 years.
As of May 12th 2020, the block mining rewards are 6.25 BTC per block. Transaction fees also represent a minor revenue stream for miners.
submitted by D-platform to u/D-platform [link] [comments]

r/Bitcoin recap - April 2019

Hi Bitcoiners!
I’m back with the 28th monthly Bitcoin news recap.
For those unfamiliar, each day I pick out the most popularelevant/interesting stories in Bitcoin and save them. At the end of the month I release them in one batch, to give you a quick (but not necessarily the best) overview of what happened in bitcoin over the past month.
You can see recaps of the previous months on Bitcoinsnippets.com
A recap of Bitcoin in April 2019
Adoption
Development
Security
Mining
Business
Education
Archeology (Financial Incumbents)
Price & Trading
Fun & Other
submitted by SamWouters to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

What is raiden? a quick guide for new users

Just a quick guide to Raiden for newcomers. I'm not an expert so please feel free to jump in with any information I've missed or anything that isn’t correct. Cheers.
What is Raiden?
"The Raiden Network is an off-chain scaling solution for performing ERC20-compliant token transfers on the Ethereum blockchain. It is Ethereum’s version of Bitcoin’s Lightning Network, enabling near instant, low-fee, scalable, and privacy-preserving payments." 1
In plain English, Raiden lets you transfer ETH or any ERC20 token-much faster and cheaper than is currently possible.
(See 'further reading' for details on what ERC20 tokens are).
So, it makes crypto transfers faster and cheaper. Is that necessary?
Yes. Currently, the Ethereum blockchain is capable of processing around 15 transactions per second. You may see this referred to as Tx/sec. By comparison. Visa has stated that they can operate at 56,000 transactions per second. 2
During busy periods the system can become clogged and transactions can take hours. Think back to the spat of ICOs in summer 2017, or the more recent CryptoKitties craze, for examples. Vitalik Buterin, the co-founder of Ethereum, acknowledged as much in a recent blogpost:
"With the Ethereum blockchain teaching millions of transactions per day, and both Ethereum and other blockchain projects frequently reaching their full transaction capacity, the need for scaling progress is becoming more and more clear and urgent." 3
If crypto is going to contend for mainstream adoption, it needs to speed up big time. This is where Raiden comes in. You don't need to wait for any blocks to be mined. Its transfers are instant.
And cheaper?
Transfers made on the Ethereum blockchain are calculated based on the computational resource needed to make it. Whether your transfer is big or small, the fee will not be massively different as they all go through a similar process.
With Raiden, the fees are proportionate. This means everyday transactions like buying a cup of coffee will carry a much smaller fee. Even making thousands of tiny payments of just a few pennies/cents will not add up to a large fee, as it would do in the current system.
How does Raiden work?
The Raiden network operates on top of the Ethereum blockchain, but a lot of the heavy lifting takes place off-chain. Transactions take place between two parties using something called balance proofs.
Near-limitless transactions can take place simultaneously, off-chain, with two exceptions; a one-off on-chain transaction at the beginning, and another at the end. You can read all about the specifics here.
A very simplified way to think about it is to imagine a train with 100 passengers all waiting to board in one queue. At the train door the conductor takes payment, gives out change, ensures everything is in order and lets customers on one at a time. This would take a very long time.
Now imagine there are 100 machines to the side that dispense tickets. Everybody goes to get a ticket instantly, then returns to the conductor. There is still only one conductor, but he can now quickly get the passengers on the train without wasting time.
In this analogy, Ethereum is the conductor and Raiden is the ticket machines. The passengers buy their tickets (make transactions) to the side (off-chain). There is still only one conductor (Ethereum blockchain). But instead of queuing up for ages and clogging up the system, the process is sped up by performing most of the work to the side (off-chain) and everybody gets on the train (makes a transaction) much faster. The destination is the same, but the journey is quicker.
Apologies for the very unscientific analogy :)
How long until Raiden is ready to go?
Raiden was initially scheduled for launch in March 2017 but was pushed back.
Currently Raiden is still in the development phase but a limited release is coming soon. This will give Dapp developers a taste of Raiden ahead of its full release. They'll also be able to build prototypes that can interact with the Raiden Ropsten-based test network.
What is µRaiden?
µRaiden is similar to Raiden in that it allows for off-chain transactions. The micropayments that happen off-chain are free, and µRaiden is already live. However, one major difference between this and Raiden is the linear transactions. It cannot be established for many-to-many payments like Raiden can.
And what is Raidos?
Raidos, or Raiden 2.0, is still in its early stages. Instead of only dealing in ERC20 tokens, it will look to cover all types of smart contract.
So Raiden, µRaiden and Raidos are all from one company?
Yes. If you invest in Raiden tokens, you're effectively investing in all three at once.
What is the point of Raiden tokens (RDN)?
For people who want to use Raiden without running a full node - which will be the vast, vast majority - Raiden tokens will have to be bought and used.
Users who run a full node will not require Raiden tokens.
I heard that the token isn't needed, and the ICO was just a 'cash grab'...
Originally, Raiden did not plan to launch a token or hold an ICO of its own. However, the company changed tack and held an ICO which raised just shy of 110,000 ETH. 4
The crypto community, and ETH holders in particular, felt that they were being robbed of value. Those who had bought and held Ethereum would have hoped the news of Raiden would boost the price of their holdings. But with a separate token the perceived consensus was that this move took value away from ETH and into RDN, at least in the short term.
Vitalik Buterin also weighed in on Twitter, saying he wished RDN hadn't held an ICO but equally stating that he understood it was necessary:
“I wish they didn’t [hold an ICO] but I totally understand why they did and do not blame them.” 5
The way things panned out left a bitter taste for many crypto investors. But the token certainly does have a very real use.
Where can I buy Raiden tokens (RDN)?
You can currently buy RDN at a handful of exchanges:
Binance
OKEx
Huobi
Kucoin
EtherDelta
Further reading:
What are ERC20 tokens?
Raiden 101
Vitalik Buterin blog update
Sources and links:
1 https://raiden.network/101.html 2 https://mybroadband.co.za/news/banking/206742-bitcoin-and-ethereum-vs-visa-and-paypal-transactions-per-second.html 3 https://blog.ethereum.org/2018/01/02/ethereum-scalability-research-development-subsidy-programs/ 4 https://token.raiden.network/ 5 https://twitter.com/VitalikButerin/status/911300771819352064?ref_src=twsrc%5Etfw&ref_url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.ethnews.com%2Fvitalik-buterin-responds-to-raiden-ico
submitted by Live_Forether to raidennetwork [link] [comments]

The State of Cryptocurrency Media, According to Laura Shin

In the latest episode of “Balancing the Ledger,” the _Fortune_team turns the tables on Laura Shin, known in the cryptocurrency world for her own probing podcast interviews, for a critical discussion about media coverage of the crypto industry.
One problem, Shin highlighted, is that cryptocurrency-focused media outlets are more prone to “pay to play” schemes, which involve journalists providing positive coverage in exchange for money or gifts. One reason for this, Shin speculates, is the global nature of the blockchain industry, and that many of the writers covering it hail from places where the norms around journalism are different than in the West. (Editor’s note: _Fortune_does not engage in such tactics.)
Shin, who was previously a staff writer for Forbes, notes that it’s not just far-flung crypto outlets that have shown questionable ethics. Mainstream outlets, too, she says, have been irresponsible in feeding the frenzy during cryptocurrency’s bubble phases.
“I just thought, ‘Oh my god, their audience is going to lose so much money. Why are they doing this?'” Shin says.
As for her own fledgling media empire—Shin now runs two podcasts, “Unchained” and “Unconfirmed,” and is building out a live-events business—she has encountered the same challenges as the rest of the media industry, including fears of the monopoly power of the big tech giants.
“What if someday there is the Google of podcast ads, and suddenly they tweak something and my revenue plummets?” Shin says.
Meanwhile, the cryptocurrency industry itself may soon come to provide a new revenue stream for media outlets in the form of crypto micropayments, which would allow entrepreneurs like Shin to collect small contributions from thousands of readers or listeners. Shin worries, however, that such a system could come to resemble Spotify—where a handful of popular artists cash in but the majority only receive scraps. She also noted that her experience putting a “tip jar” on her blog hasn’t been a rousing success—”I’ve made like 42 cents from the tip jar,” she laughs.
While Shin has now done hundreds of interviews in the crypto world, one guest was her all-time favorite: Binance’s CEO, Changpeng Zhao, better known as CZ.
“It was the pleasure of giving somebody a tough question and having them coming right back at you with the strength of their convictions,” Shin says, describing CZ’s defense of his company’s regulatory arbitrage strategy as “interesting and thought-provoking.”
As for the issue of regulation in the United States—namely whether the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission is stifling innovation in the crypto sector—Shin says she is torn.
“As an American, I’m like, ‘Hey, wait, these teams are actually American, they should be here [but] there’s all this talent leaving…but I’ve also had friends lose money to scammers,” she says. A major court ruling or act of Congress would bring much-needed clarity to the industry, she adds.
For now, Shin remains hard at work on her forthcoming book, which she describes as “the second chapter of crypto history—picking up the story of cryptocurrency following the early days of Bitcoin as chronicled in Nathaniel Popper’s highly regarded Digital Gold.
* More Details Here
submitted by acerod1 to Business_Analyst [link] [comments]

BankDex - The First Exchange to Overcome High Latency in Cryptocurrency Exchanges

BankDex - The First Exchange to Overcome High Latency in Cryptocurrency Exchanges
BankDex is a user-friendly decentralized exchange, which ensures fiat trading with fast withdrawals and near-feeless transactions. Our team aims to involve new users in blockchain community by eliminating barriers relating with the complexity of buying, transferring & cashing out assets. In this article we research crypto exchanges market and our potential share at first, and then show our benefits and solutions and how it works.
DEX market overview
Encrybit team revealed real-time cryptocurrency exchange problems survey insights1. 1108 crypto traders were questioned: “What are the biggest concerns that you see in currently available exchanges!”. The main issues faced are:

https://preview.redd.it/z22h0m5g2lh31.png?width=500&format=png&auto=webp&s=f215be996b422c10f24bf5c273feb3cc19eab3ab
The second question was which exchange do you like, and virtually all respondents referred to centralized exchanges (CEX) here. This survey can be supported by market researches. Trading data from six major centralized exchanges (Binance, Bitfinex, Bithumb HitBTC, Huobi and OKEX) was compared to that from nine leading decentralized exchanges (Bancor Network, BitShares, DDEX, EtherDelta, ForkDelta, IDEX, OpenLedger, StellarTerm, and the Waves Platform). The share of DEX was only 2% of the total trading volume2. The reason is clear: the current generation of DEX has made progress only in security concerns3, while contributing to all other problems and suffering new, like fragmented markets4, no fiat support5, no scaling6, the impossibility of transactions between different blockchains7. Also clear that market is looking forward to flagman product which will eliminate challenges and will enable market growth. Experts highly estimate its potential. Increasing the number of institutional investors8, DEXs should reach up to 4% of total crypto market volume within the next two years. This would mean growth of 5–20x for DEX usage.
A Primer to BankDex
BankDex is a decentralized exchange built in response to the demands of the cryptocurrency users, for a simplified and enhanced trading platform. The platform is built on a robust ecosystem that promotes an enriched user experience, low latency, greater liquidity and security for user transactions.
BankDex employs a loose mesh topology powered by kernel nodes which are responsible for faster transaction persistence and validation. In addition to ensuring faster transactions that can be completed in less than a second, they are also highly resistant to security attacks by being Asynchronous Byzantine Fault Tolerant (aBFT).
The exchange features an impressive collection of crypto — crypto pairing across its network. The array of its supported tokens and cryptocurrencies currently includes BTC, XRP, XLM, ADA, ETH, TRX, EOS, QNT, VIBE, MKR, ZIL and REM, with many more to be added along the timeline.
BankDex allows its users to withdraw funds for free from their wallet. Third party wallet integration is also one of those features to be integrated in the near future. The BankDex transaction management system is both unique and secure, ensuring a flawless trading platform for cryptocurrency users.
Latency and Cryptocurrency Exchanges
Traders handling large quantities of cryptocurrency trade often find themselves in need of an exchange with one particular feature — low latency. In the simplest of terms, latency can be defined as the delay to receive a response after a request is made. As it connects with trading, latency affects the amount of time required for traders to mingle with the market.
Latency, in trading terms, implies to the speed with which a trading platform can react to the present status of the market. Trading platforms integrate programs specially designed to buy and sell assets in less than a second. Low latency means that these platforms are able to react faster to the actions of the market. The rapid nature of today’s market enables traders to make a significant amount of money.
Traders who take part in such kind of trade look for very low latency, somewhere in the range 10 milliseconds to 0.1 milliseconds. This kind of speed limit can be reliably accomplished by machines only. For low latency trades to be worthwhile and lucrative, users require an exchange that can handle such high speeds. The ideal latency will figure around a speed of 0.5ms, but this is quite difficult to accomplish.
Managing Latency in BankDex
BankDex decentralized cryptocurrency exchange addresses the latency issue with the lightning network concept, which ensures faster and safer trade of crypto & fiat currency. It overcomes the scalability issues, inherent to blockchain and enhances the throughput and latencies associated with a transaction.
The trading exchange consists of seven blockchains, which communicate with the core through a set of communication protocols. The communication between the different blockchains is established with the help of an interoperable blockchain router.

https://preview.redd.it/hl2x804p2lh31.png?width=500&format=png&auto=webp&s=1acd6b6db00d287cce3fd537a1593c45e06e73d8
BankDex and the Lightning Network
A lightning network can be described as a protocol layer that enables low-latency, high volume digital micropayments without the help of an intermediary. The fundamental technology of lightning network involves a payment channel, a local two-party consensus.
Both the parties involved in the transaction sends an initial amount of Bitcoin, or any cryptocurrency token into a multisignature transaction. The multisignature transaction involves a local consensus on the existing balance that is allocated between the two parties in the transaction.
Any update regarding the allocation of the existing balance can be only be made with the cooperation of both entities involved in the transaction. This is done with the help of a new transaction that spends the funds allocated for the multisignature transactions allocated to each party.
Website : https://www.bankdex.io/ Twitter : https://twitter.com/bank_dex Facebook : https://www.facebook.com/bankdex.io Telegram : https://t.me/BankdexChatOfficial Whitepaper : https://www.bankdex.io/index.php/white-pape Technical Paper : https://www.bankdex.io/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/Technical-Paper.pdf
Bounty0x username : nefsim

https://preview.redd.it/gbwx5k8a3lh31.png?width=250&format=png&auto=webp&s=5fc0532ff9dfa10013faf2b36a4dcf1fca45b419
submitted by hayrimavi1 to ico [link] [comments]

InvestInBlockchain - Cryptocurrencies in the Top 100 With Working Products

Bitcoin (BTC)

📷
Bitcoin is the cryptocurrency that started it all back in 2009, after the global financial crisis and subsequent bailouts of banks left many people disenfranchised with fiat currency and outdated, insecure financial infrastructure.
Today, Bitcoin is being used for peer-to-peer payments across the globe. More than that, though, it is leading the way towards a future in which financial technology is trustless, secure, resilient, and censorship resistant. Without Bitcoin, this list would not exist.

Ethereum (ETH)

📷
The platform that brought smart contracts to the blockchain, spurring a minor revolution in the cryptocurrency ecosystem. Before Ethereum, Bitcoin and its transaction-oriented design was the central focus of most blockchain projects.
After Ethereum, teams saw the value of decentralized apps (dapps) and smart contracts, and shifted their focus to compensate.
Vitalik Buterin’s Ethereum whitepaper was released in late 2013. The project itself was announced January 2014, with a crowdsale the following July. The system officially went live in July 2015.
Since then, hundreds of businesses, individuals, and blockchain projects have adopted Ethereum as their main smart contracts platform.

Ripple (XRP)

📷
Ripple is focused primarily on one thing: fast and cheap international transactions.
Current banking infrastructure has failed to evolve in the 21st century, such that it still takes 3-5 business days on average for an international transfer to be processed. With just 4 second transaction times and at a fraction of the cost of a wire transfer, Ripple’s working product is already impacting the banking sector.
The big knock against Ripple is that its native token, XRP, is completely unnecessary. Indeed, driving adoption of Ripple’s banking solutions is far easier than getting real-world adoption for XRP.
If you’re interested in seeing a discussion about how XRP adoption will occur, you might find this reddit thread worth a read. Meanwhile, all of us will just have to wait and see whether XRP adoption strategies ultimately come to fruition.

Bitcoin Cash (BCH)

📷
Bitcoin Cash was created in 2017 when the first ever hard fork of the Bitcoin blockchain took place. The split was the result of Bitcoin’s 1MB blocks filling up. Transaction speeds were declining, fees were increasing, and it became clear to the community that the current model wasn’t sustainable for scaling.
In a move that still causes cryptocurrency fights to this day, Bitcoin and Bitcoin Cash soon emerged as separate but similar projects. BCH has 8x the block size of BTC, giving it roughly 8x the transaction throughput. Its fees and transaction times are much faster, as predicted.
Learn more about Bitcoin vs Bitcoin Cash.

Stellar (XLM)

📷
The Stellar project and its associated Lumens (XLM) token was forked from the Ripple protocol in 2014. Stellar has come into its own since then, providing a blockchain connection service for fiat transactions between banks, payment systems, and people. Stellar is fast and reliable, and it works with practically no fees for the end-user.
Stellar is a payments system, meaning its job is to move money as efficiently as possible. Partnerships with banks and financial institutions were key in evaluating its status, as was the ability to actually send money using the network.
Several non-profits and commercial entities have agreed to use Stellar as part of their financial infrastructure. Recently, the team partnered with IBM and KlickEx to facilitate cross-border transactions in the South Pacific and announced an affiliate with Keybase to streamline international transactions.
Stellar also has projects being built on its network by major established entities. IBM’s blockchain division is using XLM for their payments infrastructure, for example, and the Veridium startup is working with both organizations to tokenize its carbon credits market.

Litecoin (LTC)

📷
Litecoin is a Bitcoin fork that was created in 2011 by Charlie Lee as a cheaper and faster (2.5 minute block time instead of 10) alternative to Bitcoin. This is accomplished predominantly because Litecoin uses a Scrypt hashing algorithm instead of the SHA-256 algorithm used by Bitcoin. It’s common to hear Litecoin called “digital silver” to Bitcoin’s “digital gold,” and in reality Litecoin does not really expand upon the functionality of Bitcoin in a significant way so much as it makes different tradeoffs.
That being said, it does succeed in being cheaper and faster to use than BTC, which has led to it being accepted by hundreds of merchants and thus making Litecoin one of the most widely used cryptocurrencies for digital payments.

Tether (USDT)

📷
Tether is an unusual project. Whereas most cryptocurrencies rise and fall in value, Tether was designed to stay the same, fixed at a 1:1 ratio with the U.S. dollar.
This allows users to store, send, and receive digital currencies across platforms without incurring significant losses due to value fluctuations.
The Tether stable coin sounds straightforward, but the project isn’t without controversy. USDT is supposedly backed by real USD sitting in a bank account. But in which account? Who controls it? And is Tether being used to manipulate the value of Bitcoin? It’s all part of the Tether controversy.

Monero (XMR)

📷
Released in 2014 as a fork of Bytecoin, Monero has since made a name for itself as the most popular privacy coin on the market.
Most cryptocurrencies offer little in the form of anonymity. Monero was built for privacy from the ground-up, featuring stealth addresses, ring signatures, and complete coin fungibility. All of this adds up to a near-perfect cloak of anonymity, allowing Monero users to conduct transactions without exposing their identity.
Monero has had steady growth over the years thanks to a dedicated team of developers and an active community. The project continues to evolve with new privacy features and improved transaction security.

NEO (NEO)

📷
NEO was founded in 2014 as one of the earliest smart contract platforms, giving it a wide breadth of possible functionality. The platform’s strongest use case is digitizing traditional assets so that they can be easily tracked and exchanged on the blockchain.
NEO is also well-known as the “Chinese Ethereum,” and the fact that it is a Chinese-based project does seem to make Chinese dapp developers somewhat more likely to build on top of it than other platforms.
In fact, NEO has already supported dozens of ICOs and remains one of the predominant platforms for supporting smart contracts and dapps.

Binance Coin (BNB)

📷
Binance Coin is an exchange token used to reduce trading fees on the Binance platform.
Users can opt to pay exchange, listing, and withdrawal fees using BNB and enjoy as much as a 50% discount on all charges. This turns out to be a powerful incentive for purchasing and holding BNB, as what trader doesn’t enjoy saving money on transactions?
Binance Coin is an ERC-20 token that runs on the Ethereum blockchain. Its purpose is extremely limited, but because such a vast number of Binance users transact with it every day, it qualifies as a working and active product.

Zcash (ZEC)

📷
Zcash is another immensely popular privacy coin that often cracks the top 20 cryptocurrencies. It uses the tagline “internet money” and promises to fully protect the privacy of transactions with zero-knowledge cryptography.
Zcash provides anonymity by shielding transactions on the blockchain, preventing anyone from seeing the sender, recipient, or value of each transaction. The technology is so effective the Ethereum team is investigating it to enable anonymous transactions on their network.
Zcash has grown in leaps and bounds in 2018. The dev team published a roadmap through the year 2020, which includes a major features upgrade in the October 2018 Sapling release. Coinbase is also considering listing Zcash, which is a huge boost for any cryptocurrency.

Qtum (QTUM)

📷
Qtum is a smart contracts platform similar to Ethereum, only with a stronger focus on value transfers and decentralized apps. It’s meant to be something of a hybrid between Bitcoin and Ethereum, allowing businesses to build smart contracts on the platform or just focus on cryptocurrency transactions.
Qtum launched in March 2017, and dashed straight to the top. The initial offering sold over $10 million in tokens after just 90 minutes. The project differentiated itself by providing a rare Proof-of-Stake smart contracts platform designed to compensate for some of Ethereum’s shortcomings, including lack of compatibility for mobile devices.
Qtum released its mainnet in September 2017, opening the doors to a fully functional smart contract and dapps platform. Several projects already have an established presence on the network. One of the more exciting ones is Space Chain, which aims to create an open-source satellite network anyone can use for data transmission, storage, and development.

0x Protocol (ZRX)

📷
0x Protocol has one of the most important working products in the entire Ethereum ecosystem. It is a permissionless, open-source protocol that facilitates trustless exchanges of Ethereum tokens through relayers and dapps that build on top of the protocol.
Not only has 0x been providing this functionality for over a year now, but they’ve been working to expand the protocol functionality significantly since that initial launch. In 0x protocol 2.0 and beyond, it will be possible to trade tokens built on standards besides ERC-20, including non-fungible ERC-721 tokens.
In a market full of scams and vaporware, 0x’s valuable contributions to the Ethereum ecosystem have made it one of the best performing cryptocurrencies of 2018.

Bytecoin (BCN)

📷
Bytecoin is another popular privacy-focused cryptocurrency with a strong community and user base. Transactions on the Bytecoin blockchain are instantaneous, untraceable, unlinkabe, and resistant to blockchain analysis.
Bytecoin has been around for a long time now, with contributions to the project beginning in 2012. However, that hasn’t stopped the project’s developers from continuously improving the product.
The recently updated Bytecoin roadmap has a hard fork for a consensus update scheduled for August 31, as well as numerous initiatives for community growth constantly in the works.

Decred (DCR)

📷
Founded in 2015 by former Bitcoin developers, Decred’s most important working product is its solution to Bitcoin’s biggest problem. No, not scalability… blockchain governance.
You see, early Bitcoiners have been debating block size limitations and the efficacy of other scalability solutions like the Lightning Network for years, even though the problem of scalability really only became discussed in the mainstream in 2017.
With its community-based governance model and strong adherence to the core ethos of decentralization, Decred is built to evolve and improve rapidly. That means that it’s equipped to handle not only the scalability problem today, but other big problems that might arise down the line.
When you have poor governance, it is an arduous process making any upgrades to a project, no matter how necessary they may seem to the majority of coin holders. Decred’s best-in-class and still improving governance model give it an intriguing case to be a leader in digital payments for a long time to come.

BitShares (BTS)

📷
BitShares aims to improve worldwide access to financial services via blockchain. The tagline “assist the unbanked” summarizes the project nicely. In practice, this translates to BitShares operating as a decentralized exchange, one that was built from the ground-up to avoid scalability issues and keep transaction fees low.
BitShares was launched in 2014 by Dan Larimer, who would then go on to take a lead development role in both EOS and Steem.
The current state of the project offers decentralized asset exchange, price-stable cryptocurrencies, recurring and scheduled payments, user-issued assets, and more, all available through a decentralized system powered by delegated PoS consensus.

Steem (STEEM)

📷
Steem is the cryptocurrency that powers Steemit, a decentralized social media platform that incentivizes user participation through micropayments. Think of it like Reddit, only instead of just upvoting or downvoting posts, users can actually reward creators for their effort.
Steem is a functional cryptocurrency used exclusively on the Steemit platform. That gives it something of a limited use, but seeing as how Steemit is live and boasts a few hundred thousand users, it’s hard to argue it isn’t a working product. Some people may even be earning money using Steemit.

Siacoin (SIA)

📷
Siacoin is one of the leaders in decentralized cloud storage, a more secure and affordable alternative to centralized cloud storage solutions like Amazon S3, Google Drive, iCloud, Dropbox, and others.
Sia 1.0 was launched in June 2016, and has achieved considerable adoption since then. With the $200 billion cloud storage market widely seen as one of the spaces most ripe for blockchain disruption, Sia has gotten off to a nice start by offering a functional decentralized cloud storage platform for over 2 years.

Augur (REP)

📷
Augur is one of the most recently launched products on this list. The platform mainnet went live in early July 2018, bringing to fruition almost 4 years of post-ICO work.
Augur is a decentralized prediction market that uses game theory to generate crowd-sourced insights. Essentially, thousands of people working together have shown the remarkable ability to forecast outcomes.
With Augur, users can put REP tokens as bets on these predictions, essentially creating a form of “useful social gambling.”
Augur’s release was a long time coming. The project started as far back as 2014, nearly a year before the ICO. The creators cite the complexity of Augur’s smart contracts as the chief cause of the lengthy development time.
Regardless of its past, Augur is now a live product with a bright future. Over 300 predictions have already been made, with the largest winning payout hitting $20,000. Betting volume even exceeded $1 million within the first weeks of launch.

Basic Attention Token (BAT)

📷
Basic Attention Token was one of the easiest projects to include on this list. That’s because its working product, Brave Browser, has more than 3 million active usersbetween its mobile and desktop platforms, making it one of the most widely-used working products in the blockchain space.
Not only is Brave Browser functional, it’s the only browser on the market that has built-in ad-blocking and tracker blocking, making the browsing experience both cleaner and faster than what you get with other popular browsers like Chrome and Firefox.
The future remains uncertain for the BAT token itself, as its adoption depends heavily on whether or not advertisers buy-in to the Brave model, as well as how willing Brave users are to be shown relevant ads and to pass along the BAT they earn to content publishers.
Given Brave’s success in just a short time since being launched, though, the future does appear promising for BAT.

Nano (XRB)

📷
Nano (formerly RaiBlocks) is all about scalability. The coin has nearly instant transactions with a completely fee-less structure. The platform accomplishes this by creating a unique blockchain for every account, preventing bloat and allowing for practically infinite scalability.
Nano’s motto of “do one thing and do it well” has gotten them a long way. The team doesn’t have to deal with scaling or slowdown issues thanks to the underlying structure of the project, allowing its roadmap to focus on wallet updates and outreach. This is one cryptocurrency that’s essentially feature complete, and it has been for some time.

Golem (GNT)

📷
Golem has set out to be the Airbnb of computing resources. Have you ever needed extra GPU power to finish up a render? How about processing scientific data similar to the [email protected] project?
Even if you don’t have those needs, a lot of groups do. Golem aims to provide easy access to those resources, all of which are rentable for a small cryptocurrency fee.
Golem hit the mainnet launch button in April 2018, and was met with a fair amount of fanfare. One of the main goals for the feature-incomplete launch was to push the product out so real users could put it to work.
The team was interested in strengthening their interactions with end users to help guide the future of the platform. The team has several major milestones planned for the coming months, so the mainnet release is only just the beginning.

Pundi X (NPXS)

📷
Pundi X has been shooting up the market cap rankings so far in Q3 2018, and they also happen to have a working product that just recently became available to retailers.
The primary Pundi X product is a point-of-sale (POS) device that enables quick and easy mobile transactions for both fiat and cryptocurrencies. 500 POS devices are already being used by retailers in Asia, and there are thousands more scheduled to be distributed in the coming months.
In addition, Pundi X also offers XPASS cards, cryptocurrency credit cards that can work in place of mobile apps for making digital payments.
What makes the Pundi X project noteworthy is that it enables consumers to pay retailers in cryptocurrencies like BTC and ETH, and it immediately converts the payments into local fiat currencies so that retailers don’t need to worry about price volatility of the cryptocurrencies.
This makes it significantly easier for people to use cryptocurrencies in their daily lives, making Pundi X an exciting project for blockchain enthusiasts who are looking for signs of future mass adoption.

Waves (WAVES)

📷
Waves was the first ever blockchain platform that made it possible for anybody — regardless of their programming experience — to create blockchain tokens. Additionally, Waves has a decentralized exchange where tokens can be traded and exchanged with fiat currencies.
Since the project’s first releases in 2016, Waves has gone on to make their DEX accessible from mobile phones and expanded its functionality significantly, while also building several strategic partnerships to help grow the Waves community and user base.
Ultimately, though, the Waves Client is the project’s most important working product, as it is what allows tokens to be issued, stored, sent, and exchanged among users.

KuCoin Shares (KCS)

📷
Similar to Binance Coin, KuCoin Shares is an exchange token that can be used to pay reduced fees on cryptocurrency trades. KCS has the added bonus of paying dividends to long-term hodlers, as well, paying out a 5% ROI for most users.
The nature of KuCoin Shares is one of the reasons the KuCoin exchange has gotten so much attention since it appeared on the scene. The tokens themselves are limited in scope, of course, but the sheer number of people using them for trades and buying them for passive income is enormous.

Wanchain (WAN)

📷
Wanchain aims to build new and improved financial infrastructure to seamlessly connect the digital economy through blockchain interoperability. The use cases for Wanchain’s network are vast, and they include decentralized financial services, supply chain logistics, medical data sharing and security, digital ID management, and more.
With the recently released Wanchain 2.0, it is now possible to transfer Ether cross-chain using Wanchain’s Ethereum Mapping Token, WETH.
Ethereum interoperability is just the start, though, and it’s expected that cross-chain support for Bitcoin and a couple of ERC-20 tokens will follow before the end of 2018.

Komodo (KMD)

📷
Komodo is a fork of Zcash that uses the same zk-snark cryptography to hide information about transaction participants and amounts being sent. Functional privacy coins aren’t unique (there are a handful on this list) but Komodo does have some unique features.
For one, Komodo was the first ever decentralized initial coin offering. Moreover, Komodo helps other developers to build their own customizable blockchain solutions, from building and securing independent blockchains and launching decentralized ICOs, to integrating projects into the cryptocurrency ecosystem.
KMD would already qualify as a working product for its anonymity features on digital payments, but add the end-to-end blockchain building solution and it’s clear that Komodo is making meaningful contributions to the cryptocurrency ecosystem.

Ardor (ARDR)

📷
Ardor is a scalable blockchain platform that allows businesses to create their own child chains and tokens with relative ease. This helps keep blockchain bloat to a minimum and provides multiple transactional tokens without sacrificing core chain transactions. It’s also a remarkably energy efficient platform that uses Proof-of-Stake to power consensus.
Ardor launched its mainnet on January 1, 2018 after a full year in testnet status. Its core features are largely in place, with the roadmap set to improve things like scalability and snapshotting.
The Blockchain-as-a-Service-platform hosts a few projects of its own, including the Ignis ICO, which was the first child chain on the mainnet.

Huobi Token (HT)

📷
Huobi is a digital asset exchange platform founded back in 2013, now offering well over 250 different trading pairs. The Huobi Token, meanwhile, is an ERC-20 token that is used on the exchange for discounts on trading fees of up to 50%.
In addition, 20% of the income generated on the Huboi Pro trading platform is used to buy back HT on the open market.
Unlike most buyback programs, the main purpose of Huobi’s program isn’t to reduce the circulating supply of HT. Rather, the HT that is bought back goes into a Huobi Investor Protection Fund, which is used to compensate Huobi users if they lose coins or tokens on the platform, as well as to ensure market stability and protect investor interests.

ZenCash (ZEN)

📷
ZenCash is yet another privacy coin with a working product in the Top 100, originally launched in the first half of 2017.
What makes ZenCash unique is that it’s the first blockchain with Transport Layer Security (TLS) integration for node encryption, making communication on the ZenCash network both private and highly secure.
Some other interesting parts of the ZenCash product include Tor nodes and built-in chat messaging services. In the future, the ZenCash team will deliver a DAO Treasury Protocol-level Voting System as well as a scalability solution to handle greater transaction volume.

PIVX (PIVX)

📷
PIVX is another privacy coin that focuses on keeping users and their associated transactions hidden under a cloak of secrecy. The project also tries to keep transactions as fast and fee-less as possible, something not all privacy platforms can boast about.
PIVX launched in January 2016. The coin is currently spendable and delivers the privacy features it promises, though it’s not yet a widely accepted currency by merchants.
Future plans for PIVX include governance functions to engage the community, wallet voting, and its own zPIV decentralized exchange.

Kyber Network (KNC)

📷
Kyber Network launched their mainnet in Q1 2018, enabling instantaneous and secure inter-token settlements through a Decentralized Liquidity Network.
It’s currently possible to swap ERC-20 tokens on the network with just a few mouse clicks, giving it some basic functionality that is already being used to improve liquidity for Ethereum tokens.
In the future, however, Kyber Network will expand its functionality significantly in an effort to seamlessly connect dapps, DEXes, protocols, payment systems, token teams, investors, fund managers, and digital wallets.

Bancor (BNT)

📷
Bancor is a liquidity provider that enables users to exchange tokens without the need for a third-party to be involved in financing the transaction.
Gaining liquidity is incredibly important for young cryptocurrency projects, as a lack of liquidity makes it risky for investors to buy a considerable amount of a given coin or token, knowing that it might be exceedingly difficult to sell should they wish to.
Bancor’s technology makes it possible to convert one token to another, so that investors can be confident that they won’t be stuck involuntarily holding a cryptocurrency that they want to sell. This functionality makes the Bancor Liquidity Network one of the most promising working products on this list, and one that has already achieved a good deal of adoption.

Loom Network (LOOM)

📷
Loom Network is still less than a year old, having been founded in October 2017. However, they have accomplished a lot in that short time span, including having launched numerous tools to help software developers learn how to build blockchain solutions.
The most important of these tools — and Loom’s biggest working product — is the Loom software development kit (SDK).
However, Loom Network is far more than just a simple blockchain coding academy. It is also a production-ready scalability solution for Ethereum, as the Loom developer toolkit helps programmers to build highly scalable dapps which connect to the Ethereum blockchain through special side chains called DappChains.
The project may still be in its infancy, but Loom Network is already contributing more utility to the cryptocurrency ecosystem than the vast majority of other cryptocurrency projects.

Polymath (POLY)

📷
Polymath wants to be the world’s go-to resource for security tokens on the blockchain. What Ethereum did for tokens, Polymath will do for securities.
The advantages of this are enormous, but the Polymath team likes to point to 24/7 market access, the elimination of middlemen, and trading access for 2 billion unbanked people around the world as the chief benefits of their efforts.
The Polymath platform launched in October 2017, and has since released a new security token every week, attracting investors and traders alike. It’s not as exciting of a project as some other blockchain tech, but it’s delivering on its promises with a working product.

Bibox Token (BIX)

📷
Bibox is a encrypted digital asset exchange whose primary differentiator from other crypto exchanges is that it integrates AI technology.
The purpose of the AI is to help Bibox’s traders, which it does by providing quantitative computation and analysis of trading activity, personalized risk allocation strategy, speech recognition, and objective analysis of the various coins and tokens listed on the exchange.
The Bibox exchange first launched back in November 2017. It has operation centers in the US, Canada, mainland China, Hong Kong, Japan, and Estonia. BIX token holders receive 20% of the exchange profits, and also get discounts on trading fees, similar to Binance.
https://www.investinblockchain.com/top-cryptocurrencies-working-products/
submitted by arvind1111 to altcoin_news [link] [comments]

Crypto News Recap for the week ending August 3rd

Developments in Financial Services

Regulatory

General News

submitted by QuantalyticsResearch to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Subreddit Stats: NewYorkCoin posts from 2017-07-24 to 2018-04-09 09:00 PDT

Period: 258.76 days
Submissions Comments
Total 543 3256
Rate (per day) 2.10 12.57
Unique Redditors 205 474
Combined Score 3835 6264

Top Submitters' Top Submissions

  1. 1067 points, 120 submissions: hivewalletvictim
    1. Welcome Pro Snowboarder Jeff Sponzo to TEAM NYC! NewYorkCoin (NYC) has sponsored professional snowboarder Jeff Sponzo (instagram: @sp0nzo) Wish Jeff luck! He's competing in Oslo, Norway and spreading the word about NYC on his world tour!!! (33 points, 6 comments)
    2. An exhaustive email explaining NYC "roadmap" to the 'hype and scam' crowd. PLEASE READ. (31 points, 59 comments)
    3. 1,000,000 NYC BOUNTIES for every new retail/storefront business YOU get to accept NewYorkCoin in New York City. Business owner downloads Coinomi Wallet (beta) from link at newyorkcoin.net and prints their QR code for customers to pay! Business owner receives 1,000,000 NYC too! (27 points, 11 comments)
    4. Gila's Nosh | 23rd Street NOW ACCEPTS NYC! (24 points, 7 comments)
    5. LEASE NEGOTIATIONS IN PROCESS FOR AN AMAZING GALLERY SPACE IN LOWER EAST SIDE, MANHATTAN! THE NEW YORK COIN CENTER WILL BE OPENING SOON IN MANHATTAN. (24 points, 18 comments)
    6. 3 new businesses NOW ACCEPT @NewYorkCoinNYC ! Eqwipped Entertainment Recording Studio | Greenpoint, Brooklyn, An Nails Salon | Orlando, FL, Khameleon Koatings | Brattleboro, VT. newyorkcoin.net/#real (23 points, 6 comments)
    7. Another new business ACCEPTING NYC in Manhattan! Welcome the NYC Falafel Co of the Lower East Side to TEAM NYC. Merchant acceptance of NYC is starting to gain momentum... (20 points, 7 comments)
    8. NYC NOW ACCEPTED AT 14 BUSINESSES (and growing!). Welcome Paul Zepeda Gallery and Grown Fresh NYC to TEAM NYC. (19 points, 0 comments)
    9. Centre Finest Deli | New York, NY | Bitcoin ATM location | Now Supports NewYorkCoin | Acceptance Coming Soon (18 points, 4 comments)
    10. NYC Electrum-X now on github! Pull request also made to the original project: https://github.com/kyuupichan/electrumx/pull/354, once it's accepted it will be included in the master branch of electrum-x. Tip Coinomi devs! (18 points, 9 comments)
  2. 215 points, 27 submissions: Tnyc2477
    1. Calm (15 points, 10 comments)
    2. NewYorkCoin is on coinomi wallet. Coinomi is a security-first multi-asset wallet that provides native support and true ownership for 96 coins and 244 tokens, for a total of total of 340 coins and tokens, available in 168 fiat currency representations and 25 languages. (15 points, 14 comments)
    3. One special pitch for our coin to one special exchange (14 points, 10 comments)
    4. So You Want to Own Some NewYorkCoin (NYC) But Don’t Know Where to Start! Here is an Easy Guide for Beginners (14 points, 3 comments)
    5. That Perfect, Rich Exchange Everyone Needs (13 points, 7 comments)
    6. NYC Discord 2nd Meeting 1-24-2018.mp4 - Google Drive (12 points, 5 comments)
    7. Analysis of The Institutional Money On NewYorkCoin and What Our Main Objective Really Is (11 points, 7 comments)
    8. Looks a bit more crowded there on the list of Markets to trade NYC :-) (11 points, 2 comments)
    9. Please also join us at nycoincommunity for important posts from dev team. Thank you. (11 points, 20 comments)
    10. For Newly Joined Community Memebers (10 points, 0 comments)
  3. 150 points, 12 submissions: jamesburrell2
    1. Wall Street Journal article about NewYorkCoin (35 points, 25 comments)
    2. NewYorkCoin featured in Crains NewYork magazine (21 points, 5 comments)
    3. ***MUST READ FOR NEWBIES (NOOBS) trying to understanding what NewYorkCoin and other cryptocurrencies are (and are not). Very easy to read and written by a top player in the cryptocurrency space. (14 points, 2 comments)
    4. Great arguments for why NewYorkCoin's code is better for P2P micropayments than Bitcoin (14 points, 1 comment)
    5. My analogy for the early growing community of NewYorkCoin enthusiasts (NewYorkCoin is the abandoned cars and the garage is the bottom of CoinMarketCap) (13 points, 3 comments)
    6. NewYorkCoin is a technological improvement for informal value transfer systems and local currencies (12 points, 1 comment)
    7. A reminder of Bitcoin's price trajectory and potential trajectory for NewYorkCoin enthusiasts (10 points, 0 comments)
    8. YouTube user Coinreview was pretty early in identifying the promise of NewYorkCoin. (9 points, 0 comments)
    9. Good article why the NewYorkCoin community shouldn't judge the value of the coin by marketcap alone (8 points, 0 comments)
    10. Good video by the LitePay CEO (5 points, 0 comments)
  4. 129 points, 11 submissions: nodecache
    1. A New York Coin Development Vision: How BTC could be 'powered by NYC' via Lightning Network (20 points, 27 comments)
    2. Fast 'n Free Forever: an inflationary vision for a Proof of Stake New York Coin (19 points, 13 comments)
    3. Ask shapeshift and changelly to add NYC now that we're on Coinomi (18 points, 9 comments)
    4. BTC: powered by NYC - 1.1 Million NYC bounty raised for Segwit implementation (11 points, 29 comments)
    5. Requested NYC on Polo today, where are you requesting it? (11 points, 8 comments)
    6. 250,000 NYC Bounty to developer(s) to implement Segwit w/ intent to make NYC a BTC cash layer (10 points, 49 comments)
    7. Bounty update: Segwit/Lightning on NYC Roadmap (10 points, 6 comments)
    8. Alternative rebrand concept for a real artist to alter (9 points, 3 comments)
    9. Donation Address for Segwit Bounty: RGpAYLk2CtsLvBQBENQyNUhJyF8QH2zC53 (8 points, 30 comments)
    10. NYC is Checking Account to Bitcoin's Savings Account (7 points, 10 comments)
  5. 115 points, 13 submissions: gopes11
    1. Found this gem in one of the earlier posts. A lot of Great reads btw.. this guy nailed NYC (19 points, 0 comments)
    2. NYC VALUE (18 points, 1 comment)
    3. Only way NYC will go big is if we as a community come together and make it big. It’s not magic, we are investors and it is our duty to help this coin grow so developers have enough resources to further the project. (18 points, 9 comments)
    4. More exchanges is the solution (14 points, 6 comments)
    5. Dallas Mavericks announced they will accept Cryptocurrency next season.. (13 points, 3 comments)
    6. NYC ATMs (6 points, 3 comments)
    7. Reducing the supply (6 points, 2 comments)
    8. Did anyone meet up yesterday? (5 points, 5 comments)
    9. What is the next step and how can we help? (5 points, 1 comment)
    10. Go vote. Get our name out there (4 points, 0 comments)
  6. 95 points, 7 submissions: kyguy17
    1. Please vote for NYC to go on more exchanges (18 points, 13 comments)
    2. Adding NYC to tradesatoshi.com (17 points, 12 comments)
    3. Trade satoshi (16 points, 11 comments)
    4. We are accepted in Trade satoshi but (16 points, 3 comments)
    5. Added another exchange! This will be number four if we can pull it off. (15 points, 17 comments)
    6. Great job everybody that donated! I want to thank everyone for that and I want to personally thank everyone that trusted me on handling the funds. (10 points, 4 comments)
    7. Why did coinomi delist NYCoin? (3 points, 26 comments)
  7. 74 points, 15 submissions: dynamicmormon
    1. A new business accepts the New York Coin. Here the link: http://www.extravagantllc.com/ (14 points, 1 comment)
    2. New acceptance of New York coin found the community website. Please look there. There is an artist mentioned. (11 points, 0 comments)
    3. Cryptonator (8 points, 0 comments)
    4. I saw something that shows the Coins gets international (8 points, 3 comments)
    5. Crex24 (7 points, 3 comments)
    6. A question about New York Coin (4 points, 12 comments)
    7. A further press report found (3 points, 1 comment)
    8. Fork (3 points, 2 comments)
    9. How are the experiences with the New York Coin Center? (3 points, 45 comments)
    10. Huobi (3 points, 0 comments)
  8. 74 points, 9 submissions: NYCoinIsTheFuture
    1. NYC Website (16 points, 18 comments)
    2. It is imperative we get this coin on SEVERAL different exchanges (11 points, 7 comments)
    3. For whomever wins the website contest (10 points, 2 comments)
    4. One last request, could we please somehow remove the scam-like all caps description under the Google search page, something as simple as New York Coin (NYC) would be good. It just doesn't feel very professional, I'm sure others agree. (9 points, 2 comments)
    5. More exchanges - stay hungry. (8 points, 3 comments)
    6. NewYorkCoin price predictions? Expectations for 2018? (7 points, 5 comments)
    7. Website Contest (7 points, 14 comments)
    8. Which website are we going with??? (4 points, 6 comments)
    9. NYC PREDICTIONS (2 points, 3 comments)
  9. 69 points, 19 submissions: NewYorkCoin
    1. THE NEW YORK COIN CENTER (12 points, 3 comments)
    2. NYC (24hr) trading volume passing $1m!!! Coinmarketcap is fixing bug that is stopping updating of volume. All markets offline at coinmarketcap. NYC TRADING VOLUME IS EXPLODING!!! (10 points, 4 comments)
    3. WIN 1,000,000 NYC! (7 points, 5 comments)
    4. newyorkcoin.net is now multi-lingual ! NYC in 17 most popular languages. Links at bottom of homepage. 1/2 on left side now completed, the rest will be live by end of weekend (7 points, 7 comments)
    5. NYC IS STARTING TO MOVE!!! NewYorkCoin getting ready to break into TOP 300 at coinmarketcap. BUY NYC AT YOBIT! Coinomi in December. NYC ATM's in January. NEW YORK COIN CENTER coming in 2018! (5 points, 0 comments)
    6. $30,000 trading volume now. And climbing... Will NYC break $50,000/day for the first time EVER soon... P.S. This is BEFORE Coinomi adds NYC! (3 points, 1 comment)
    7. MEET NEW YORK COIN (NYC) (3 points, 0 comments)
    8. THE NEW YORK COIN CENTER is looking better and better by the day! (3 points, 3 comments)
    9. Can you find any more NYC cheapies under 0.00004? Are those gone forever? Next cheapies to disappear 0.00005. My prediction is that by end of this weekend, the CHEAPEST NYC you can ever buy again will be 0.00008 (maybe higher!) nycoin.net (2 points, 2 comments)
    10. FIND NEW YORK COIN AT 2017 MACY*S THANKSGIVING DAY PARADE! (2 points, 4 comments)
  10. 63 points, 4 submissions: throwawayhey1234w
    1. New website idea. The so called creator is absent from this, i can help with the website, we still need to get the blockchain working, rumbles of others workign on this but i think IF we want to drag this back from the dead we need to start reviving. (23 points, 29 comments)
    2. Nice Video For This Coin (21 points, 3 comments)
    3. Update on website, more pages. Now accpeting donations of new york coin so i can just keep powering through: REWEc7pAqxgD249pVm9aKBSaQU5nwzWhms (16 points, 9 comments)
    4. I am buying all in! (3 points, 4 comments)
  11. 61 points, 12 submissions: modoromodo
    1. Good job Newyorkcoin Team very interesting (28 points, 0 comments)
    2. NEW YORK COIN (NYC) PRICE LIVE, CRYPTOCURRENCY, NEWS, WIKI, PREDICTION (7 points, 4 comments)
    3. Who think nyc will make 0.01 soon (6 points, 6 comments)
    4. What are the best expectations for 2018 (5 points, 2 comments)
    5. NYC next year in top 10 ( very possible ) (4 points, 4 comments)
    6. SOON IN THE MOON (3 points, 0 comments)
    7. Is there news about ATMS (2 points, 2 comments)
    8. NEED MOR EXCHANGES FOR THIS COIN LIKE CRYPTOPIA . BINANCE . BITREX (2 points, 1 comment)
    9. New york coin in stocktwits (2 points, 1 comment)
    10. . (1 point, 1 comment)
  12. 53 points, 6 submissions: zer0san
    1. Reddit Banner & Marketing (17 points, 19 comments)
    2. New Variation: When needed I can make specific infographics for the website. (11 points, 5 comments)
    3. NYC Infographic Design for fun — Composition stolen from Sia ;) (8 points, 6 comments)
    4. New York Coin Reddit banner W.I.P (7 points, 13 comments)
    5. Plans for 2017/ Road map?? (7 points, 3 comments)
    6. Wanted to say Hi (3 points, 1 comment)
  13. 50 points, 4 submissions: ASSBORDERLINE
    1. COINOMI To add NYC In next update You can test NYC in there Beta App! (14 points, 2 comments)
    2. Just Bought 29 Million NYC (13 points, 14 comments)
    3. Reason Why NYC Rising & Brief History (13 points, 6 comments)
    4. ATM Coming very soon 😅 (10 points, 3 comments)
  14. 50 points, 4 submissions: CoinmaticNYC
    1. WISH US LUCK (ARTICLE ON CNBC REQUESTED)!!! (15 points, 7 comments)
    2. PLEAE READ!!! (14 points, 10 comments)
    3. FACEBOOK PAGE UPDATE (12 points, 1 comment)
    4. Quick maths bruv (9 points, 10 comments)
  15. 47 points, 7 submissions: lCyberneticl
    1. What do you all think? Anyone working on logo/graphics/advertising (20 points, 7 comments)
    2. Go NYC! (8 points, 0 comments)
    3. NYC (7 points, 1 comment)
    4. Work in progress! (5 points, 2 comments)
    5. My contribution to the website contest (3 points, 0 comments)
    6. Just an idea (2 points, 1 comment)
    7. NYC (2 points, 1 comment)
  16. 40 points, 1 submission: RealWorldCoins
    1. BREAKING NEWS! CNBC producer was at KEATS restaurant to video the first ever retail transaction using cryptocurrency, NY Coin.....This story is still developing and air date has not been disclosed. NY Coin is supposedly 20x faster than Bitcoin and does not have any fees. (40 points, 20 comments)
  17. 39 points, 5 submissions: NYC_NewYorkCoin
    1. If anyone can contact this place La Sirene in Manhattan, Im sure they will place the NYC sticker up (14 points, 6 comments)
    2. NYC New York Coin is now actively trading on Tradesatoshi.com Congrat's all. (8 points, 2 comments)
    3. NYC New York Coin This must be the coin!! (7 points, 0 comments)
    4. Picked up some more NYCoin! Lets Hope for the Best! NYC Coin 20X faster than Bitcoin NYC is simply more usable than Bitcoin. NYC is 20X faster to send, receive & confirm transactions. And 5X faster than Litecoin. NYC is much cheaper to use than Bitcoin or Litecoin. Actually, it's free! (7 points, 4 comments)
    5. New York Coin ,New York Coin, Start spreading the news You're leaving today Your vagabond shoes, they are longing to stray And steps around the heart of it, New York, New York -New York Frank Sinatra (3 points, 1 comment)
  18. 36 points, 4 submissions: nicovs_be
    1. ElectrumX and Electrum-NYC wallet by the newyorkcoin community (14 points, 0 comments)
    2. There's the 1st 2SAT NYC sells ever (11 points, 1 comment)
    3. KEATSBAR confirmation is now on the site (7 points, 5 comments)
    4. NYCoin Core Wallet Block data Download (Data up to date up to Jan 7th 9PM) (4 points, 5 comments)
  19. 35 points, 4 submissions: TweeknTekneek
    1. I bought in newyorkcoin !!! (15 points, 34 comments)
    2. I hope one day NYC coins are soo common, that they become the new digital coin for parking meters! (10 points, 0 comments)
    3. If and when NYC hits $0.01 - $0.10 (5 points, 8 comments)
    4. What is the best Walter for NYC? (5 points, 3 comments)
  20. 34 points, 5 submissions: fionaman
    1. Binance is Possible... (16 points, 7 comments)
    2. Will NYC make us millionaires? (8 points, 8 comments)
    3. We should try to get NYC on Coin Exchange (5 points, 2 comments)
    4. Lescovex vote - NYC #3 & "under consideration (3 points, 3 comments)
    5. Why is the total supply increasing? (2 points, 5 comments)

Top Commenters

  1. hivewalletvictim (611 points, 343 comments)
  2. Tnyc2477 (367 points, 171 comments)
  3. nodecache (340 points, 131 comments)
  4. dwilkes827 (168 points, 75 comments)
  5. nicovs_be (166 points, 74 comments)
  6. cryptonyxx (153 points, 62 comments)
  7. mariusadrian2103 (132 points, 42 comments)
  8. JohnSewards (122 points, 53 comments)
  9. zer0san (118 points, 48 comments)
  10. GiorgosK (110 points, 104 comments)
  11. kuch167 (102 points, 37 comments)
  12. jamesburrell2 (99 points, 39 comments)
  13. polkaberries (92 points, 47 comments)
  14. CoinmaticNYC (92 points, 32 comments)
  15. yarikd (90 points, 45 comments)
  16. GU1TARW0RLD- (69 points, 42 comments)
  17. kyguy17 (57 points, 21 comments)
  18. dynamicmormon (54 points, 30 comments)
  19. NewyorkCoinFrance (53 points, 21 comments)
  20. TweeknTekneek (52 points, 32 comments)

Top Submissions

  1. BREAKING NEWS! CNBC producer was at KEATS restaurant to video the first ever retail transaction using cryptocurrency, NY Coin.....This story is still developing and air date has not been disclosed. NY Coin is supposedly 20x faster than Bitcoin and does not have any fees. by RealWorldCoins (40 points, 20 comments)
  2. Wall Street Journal article about NewYorkCoin by jamesburrell2 (35 points, 25 comments)
  3. Welcome Pro Snowboarder Jeff Sponzo to TEAM NYC! NewYorkCoin (NYC) has sponsored professional snowboarder Jeff Sponzo (instagram: @sp0nzo) Wish Jeff luck! He's competing in Oslo, Norway and spreading the word about NYC on his world tour!!! by hivewalletvictim (33 points, 6 comments)
  4. An exhaustive email explaining NYC "roadmap" to the 'hype and scam' crowd. PLEASE READ. by hivewalletvictim (31 points, 59 comments)
  5. Good job Newyorkcoin Team very interesting by modoromodo (28 points, 0 comments)
  6. 1,000,000 NYC BOUNTIES for every new retail/storefront business YOU get to accept NewYorkCoin in New York City. Business owner downloads Coinomi Wallet (beta) from link at newyorkcoin.net and prints their QR code for customers to pay! Business owner receives 1,000,000 NYC too! by hivewalletvictim (27 points, 11 comments)
  7. Who is applying and sending in the info the exchanges require to get added ? Ill do it and pay the fees they require if someone will give me permission and materials I request. I’ll pay the fees as well they range $5000 to 20,000. Exchanges want money it’s that simple. by earthfunds (26 points, 10 comments)
  8. Logo Idea by shotxchance (25 points, 18 comments)
  9. LEASE NEGOTIATIONS IN PROCESS FOR AN AMAZING GALLERY SPACE IN LOWER EAST SIDE, MANHATTAN! THE NEW YORK COIN CENTER WILL BE OPENING SOON IN MANHATTAN. by hivewalletvictim (24 points, 18 comments)
  10. Gila's Nosh | 23rd Street NOW ACCEPTS NYC! by hivewalletvictim (24 points, 7 comments)

Top Comments

  1. 14 points: deleted's comment in LEASE NEGOTIATIONS IN PROCESS FOR AN AMAZING GALLERY SPACE IN LOWER EAST SIDE, MANHATTAN! THE NEW YORK COIN CENTER WILL BE OPENING SOON IN MANHATTAN.
  2. 12 points: hivewalletvictim's comment in An exhaustive email explaining NYC "roadmap" to the 'hype and scam' crowd. PLEASE READ.
  3. 12 points: yarikd's comment in dkbigmoney = Charlie K
  4. 11 points: zer0san's comment in Reddit Banner & Marketing
  5. 10 points: deleted's comment in I dreamt that NYC coin becomes #1 last night.
  6. 10 points: deleted's comment in LEASE NEGOTIATIONS IN PROCESS FOR AN AMAZING GALLERY SPACE IN LOWER EAST SIDE, MANHATTAN! THE NEW YORK COIN CENTER WILL BE OPENING SOON IN MANHATTAN.
  7. 10 points: bshaw2019's comment in Please release regular wallet updates and show that you are actually doing SOMETHING in terms of development.
  8. 10 points: jamesburrell2's comment in Wall Street Journal article about NewYorkCoin
  9. 10 points: nodecache's comment in Web page
  10. 9 points: 3mar7's comment in In an unbiased and honest opinion, what do you guys see this coin reaching in 1-2 years?
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Transfer Crypto Assets From Binance to Ledger - YouTube

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